Binary
Adders: Half Adders and Full Adders
In this set of slides, we present the two basic
types of adders:
1. Half adders, and
2. Full adders.
Each type of adder functions to add two binary bits.
In order to understand the functioning of either of these
circuits, we
must speak of arithmetic in terms that I learned in the second grade.
In the first grade, I learned by “plus tables”,
specifically the sum of adding
any two one–digit numbers: 2 + 2 = 4, 2 + 3 = 5, etc.
In the second grade, I learned how to add numbers
that had more than one
digit each: 23 + 34 = 57, but 23 + 38 = 61.
This adaptation of addition to multiple digit
numbers gives rise to the full adder.
Some
Sample Sums, with Comments
We begin with two simple sums, each involving only
single digits.
2 + 2 = 4, and 5 + 5 = 10.
If these are so, why do we write the
following sum 25 + 25 as
25 + 25 = 50, and not as
25 + 25 = 4 10? What digit is written in the unit’s
column of the sum?
The reason that we do not do this is the idea of a
carry from the unit’s
column to the ten’s column.
In the language of the second grade, we describe the
addition as follows:
1. 5 + 5 is 0, with a carry–out of 1, which
goes into the ten’s column.
2. 2 + 2 is 4, but we have a carry–in of 1 from
the unit’s column,
so we say 2 + 2 + 1 = 5. The sum digit in this column is a 5.
Positional
Notation in Arithmetic
In standard decimal arithmetic, the number 25 is
read as “twenty five”, and
represents 2 · 10 + 5 · 1: two tens plus five ones.
Remember that the only digits used in binary numbers
are 0 and 1.
In binary arithmetic, the number 10 is read as “one
zero”, avoiding the
names we use for decimal numbers. It
represents 1 · 2 + 0 · 1.
In binary arithmetic, the number 101 represents 1·2^{2} + 0·2^{1} + 1·1, or
1·4 + 0·2 + 1·1
= 4 + 1 = 5.
In all arithmetics: 0 + 0 = 0,
0 + 1 = 1, and
1
+ 0 = 1.
In decimal arithmetic: 1 + 1 = 2.
In binary arithmetic what is 1 + 1?
The
Sum 1 + 1 in Binary Arithmetic
We have just noted that the decimal number 2 is
represented in binary as 10.
It must be the case that, in binary addition, we
have the sum as
1
+ 1 = 10
This reads as “the addition 1 + 1 results in a sum
of 0 and a carry–out of 1”.
Recall the decimal sum 25 + 25.
1
2 5
2 5
5 0
The 1 written above the numbers in the ten’s column
shows the carry–out
from the unit’s column as a carry–in to the ten’s column.
The
Half Adder
The half adder takes two single bit binary numbers
and produces
a sum and a carry–out, called “carry”.
Here is the truth table description of a half
adder. We denote the sum A + B.
A |
B |
Sum |
Carry |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
Written as a standard sum, the last row represents
the following:
01
+ 01
10
The sum column indicates the number to be written in
the unit’s column,
immediately below the two 1’s. We write
a 0 and carry a 1.
The
Half Adder and the Full Adder
In all arithmetics,
including binary and decimal, the half adder represents
what we do for the unit’s column when we add integers.
There is no possibility of a carry–in for the unit’s
column, so we do not design
for such. Another way is to say that
there is a carry–in; it is always 0.
The full adder in decimal arithmetic would be used
for the other columns:
the ten’s column, the hundred’s column, and so on.
For these columns, a non–zero carry–in is a distinct
possibility
Considered this way, we might write our sums table
as follows.
2 + 2 = 4, if the
carry–in is 0, and
2 + 2 = 5, when the carry–in is 1.
Admittedly, the complexities of decimal arithmetic
suggest another way,
just add the values as three numbers, here 2 + 2 + 1 = 5.
Implementing
the Half Adder
Here again is the truth table for the half adder.
A |
B |
Sum |
Carry |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
We need equations for each of the Sum
and Carry. Because we have used a
truth table to specify these functions, we consider Boolean expressions.
Note that the carry is the logical AND of the two
inputs: Carry = A·B.
The sum can be given in two equivalent expressions.
The simplest expression uses the exclusive OR function: Sum = AĹB.
An equivalent expression in terms of the basic AND, OR, and NOT is:
Circuits
for the Half Adder
Here are two slightly different circuit
implementations of the half adder.
The circuit on the left implements the sum function
as Sum = AĹB.
The circuit on the right implements the sum function
as
Implementing
the Full Adder
Here we show the truth table for the sum of A and B,
with carry–in of C.
A |
B |
C |
Sum |
Carry |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
0 |
0 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
1 |
To read this as decimal, pretend that
the Sum is “Sum_Bit” and read as
the Decimal_Sum = Carry·2
+ Sum_Bit.
So 1
+ 1 + 0 = 1·2 + 0 = 2 (decimal), and
1 + 1 + 1 = 1·2 + 1 = 3
(decimal).
One
Circuit for the Full Adder
Here is the traditional AND/OR/NOT circuitry for the
full adder.
The
Full Adder with C = 0
The circuit above implements the following two
expressions, where C is
the carry–in to the full adder.
Sum = ··C
+ ·B· +
A·· +
A·B·C
Carry = A·B + A·C
+ B·C
Suppose we let the carry–in C = 0. Then = 1.
What we have then is as follows.
Sum = ··0
+ ·B·1 + A··1
+ A·B·0
= ·B
+ A·
Carry = A·B + A·0
+ B·0
= A·B
As expected, a full adder with
carry–in set to zero acts like a half adder.
The
Full–Adder and Half–Adder as Circuit Elements
When we build circuits with full adders or half
adders, it is important to focus
on the functionality and not on the implementation details.
For this reason, we denote each circuit as a simple
box with inputs and outputs.
The figure on the left depicts a full–adder with
carry–in as an input.
The figure on the right depicts a half–adder with no
carry–in as input.
The figure in the middle depicts a full–adder acting
as a half–adder.
A
Four–Bit Full–Adder
Here is a depiction of a four–bit full adder to add
two binary numbers,
depicted as A_{3}A_{2}A_{1}A_{0} and B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0}.
Note that the carry–out from the unit’s stage is
carried into the two’s stage.
In general, the carry is propagated from right to left, in the same manner as
we see in manual decimal addition. This
is called a “ripple carry adder”.
Here is an example of its output. The 4–bit sum is truncated to 1001.
1110
+ 1011
11001
Note that the unit’s adder is implemented using a
full adder.
Propagating
the Carry Bits
Just as in standard arithmetic, when done by hand,
the carry of one stage
is propagated as a carry–in to the next higher stage.
Addition
and Subtraction
In order to convert a ripple–carry adder into a
subtractor, we employ
the standard algebra trick: A – B is the same as A + (–B).
In order to subtract B from A, it is necessary to
negate B to produce
–B, and then to add that number to A.
We now have to develop a circuit that will negate a
binary value.
In order to do this, we must stipulate the method
used to represent
signed integers. As in earlier lecture,
we use two’s–complement notation.
In this method, in order to negate a binary integer,
it is necessary to
produce the two’s–complement of that value.
1. First,
take the one’s–complement of the binary integer, and then
2. Add 1 to that value.
We have to develop a circuit to create the
one’s–complement of a binary
integer. We shall develop two circuits
to do this.
The
One’s Complement of a Binary Integer
In order to take the one’s–complement of an integer
in binary form, just
change every 0 to a 1, and every 1 to a 0.
Here are some examples.
Original value 0110 0111 1010 0011
One’s complement 1001 1000 0101 1100
The circuit that does this conversion is the NOT
gate. The circuit below
would be used for four–bit integers.
If the input is B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0}
= 0110, the output is Y_{3}Y_{2}Y_{1}Y_{0} =
1001.
This circuit can be extended to any number of bits
required.
The
XOR Gate as a NOT Gate
In order to make an adder/subtractor, it is
necessary to use a gate that can
either pass the value through or generate its one’s–complement.
The exclusive OR gate, XOR, is exactly what we need.
This is controlled by a single binary signal: Neg.
Let B = 1011.
If Neg = 0, then Y = 1011. If Neg = 1, then Y
= 0100.
Some
Notation for Bit–Wise Operations
Taking
the one’s–complement of a binary integer involves taking the
one’s–complement of each of its bits. We
use the NOT notation to
denote the one’s–complement of the entire integer.
If
B = B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0} is a four–bit binary
number, its one’s–complement is
.
Remember that to get the two’s–complement,
one takes the one’s–complement
and adds one. In two’s–complement
arithmetic we have: .
This suggests the use of an adder to produce the
negative. For B = B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0},
we take the one’s complement to start the negation process. The addition of 1,
necessary to take the two’s–complement, is achieved by
setting the carry–in of the unit’s full–adder to 1.
This
is the reason for using a full–adder in the unit’s position. We can alternate
between an adder and subtractor. More on this a bit later.
The
Negator Circuit
Here
is the circuit to produce the negative of a 4–bit number B = B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0}.
If Neg = 0, then the XOR
gates pass the values B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0} unchanged and
the ripple–carry adder adds 0 to that.
The result is Y = B.
If Neg = 1, then the XOR
gates cause the one’s–complement of B = B_{3}B_{2}B_{1}B_{0}
to be computed.
Note that the carry–in of the full adder is set to 1, so that it
adds 1 to the one’s–complement, thus producing the negative: Y = – B.
The
Full Adder/Subtractor
We now have the circuit that either adds or
subtracts. This is a 4–bit circuit
that produces either (A + B) or (A – B).
This
notation is used for a two–valued control signal. When the value is 0, the
circuit is to add, when it is 1 the circuit is to subtract.
This adder/subtractor can be extended to any number
of binary bits.